Home » Vessel heads » Materials


Antonius has established a first-class reputation as a provider of customized vessel heads in various shapes and materials. This reputation is founded on the knowledge, experience and craftsmanship we build into all-metal shapes and solutions we provide.

Our team of 65 professionals have extensive knowledge and expertise in forming carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel and nickel alloys, aluminium and aluminium alloys, copper and copper alloys, titanium and it’s alloys, zirconium as well as other special materials. Our craftsmanship is the main reason why our customers do contact Antonius at an early stage.

Please find a list of often-used materials below. Is your specific material not there?
Please contact our Sales Team for more information!

Contact sales team


The combination of lean manufacturing processes and our extensive machinery allows us to respond to every individual need.

As one of the world’s leading manufacturers for vessel heads in every shape imaginable, we provide our customers with our extensive knowledge – whether in welding, forming, in the heat and surface treatment of heads, cones, expansion joints, special press parts or welded constructions.

Through years of experience in the transformation of different materials and a well-considered choice of tools, we can always offer press parts with the corresponding requirements for the demand requirements of our clients. We often work with the following materials:

Carbon Steel

Carbon steel or plain-carbon steel, is a metal alloy. It is a combination of two elements, iron and carbon. Other elements are present in quantities too small to affect its properties. The only other elements allowed in plain-carbon steel are: manganese (1.65% max), silicon (0.60% max), and copper (0.60% max). Steel with a low carbon content has the same properties as iron, soft but easily formed. With more carbon the metal gains hardness and strength but becomes less ductile and more difficult to weld. Higher carbon content lowers steel's melting point and its temperature resistance in general.

Carbon Steel is divided into three subgroups depending on the amount of carbon in the metal: Low Carbon Steels/Mild Steels (up to 0.3% carbon), Medium Carbon Steels (0.3–0.6% carbon), and High Carbon Steels (more than 0.6% carbon)

• Non- and low-alloy steel
• Fine-grained steel
• Clad steel
• Alloy and high-alloy steel
• High tensile strength steel
• Some examples: P265 / P355 / P460 / 16Mo3 / P690 / 13CrMo4-5 / 10CrMo9-10 / X8Ni9; SA516 / SA537 / SA387 / SA204 / SA203 / SA353 / SA553

Stainless Steel

Stainless steels are steels containing at least 10.5% chromium, less than 1.2% carbon and other alloying elements. Stainless steel's corrosion resistance and mechanical properties can be further enhanced by adding other elements, such as nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, manganese, etc.

Stainless steel is a corrosion-resistant alloy of iron, chromium and, in some cases, nickel and other metals.

Completely and infinitely recyclable, stainless steel is the “green material” par excellence. In fact, within the construction sector, its actual recovery rate is close to 100%. Stainless steel is also environmentally neutral and inert, and its longevity ensures it meets the needs of sustainable construction. Furthermore, it does not leach compounds that could modify its composition when in contact with elements like water.

In addition to these environmental benefits, stainless steel is also aesthetically appealing, extremely hygienic, easy to maintain, highly durable and offers a wide variety of aspects. As a result, stainless steel can be found in many everyday objects. It also plays a prominent role in an array of industries, including energy, transportation, building, research, medicine, food and logistic

On contact with oxygen, a chromium oxide layer is formed on the surface of the material. This passive layer protects it and has the unique ability to repair itself.

• Standard stainless steel,
Some examples: 304 / 304L / 321/347 / 304H, 1.4301 / 1.4306 / 1.4541 / 1.4550, 316 / 316L / 316Ti, 1.4401 / 1.4404 / 1.4571
• Duplex and super duplex steel,
Some examples: S31803 / S32205 / 1.4462, S32101 / 1.4162, S32304 / 1.4362, S32750 / 1.4410, S32760 / 1.4501
• Ferritic stainless steel,
Some examples: 405 / 1.4002, 410 / 1.4006, 410S / 1.4000
• Super Austenitic steel
Some examples: 904L / 1.4539 / N08904, 6Mo / 1.4529 / N08926, 254SMO / 1.4547 / S31254, 310L / 1.4335, 310S / 1.4845

Nickel and Nickel Alloys

Nickel is a naturally-occurring metallic element with a silvery-white, shiny appearance. It is the fifth-most common element on earth and occurs extensively in the earth’s crust and core. Nickel, along with iron, is also a common element in meteorites and can even be found in small quantities in plants, animals and seawater. While the concentration of nickel in the earth's crust is 80 parts per million, the earth's core consists mainly of a nickel-iron alloy.

Nickel has outstanding physical and chemical properties, which make it essential in hundreds of thousands of products. Its biggest use is in alloying - particularly with chromium and other metals to produce stainless and heat-resisting steels.

Nickel in elemental form or alloyed with other metals and materials has made significant contributions to our present-day society and promises to continue to supply materials for an even more demanding future. Nickel has always been a vital metal for a wide variety of industries for the simple reason that it is a highly versatile material that will alloy with most other metals.

Nickel is a versatile element and will alloy with most metals. Nickel alloys are alloys with nickel as principal element. Complete solid solubility exists between nickel and copper. Wide solubility ranges between iron, chromium, and nickel make possible many alloy combinations. Its high versatility, combined with its outstanding heat and corrosion resistance has led to its use in a diverse range of applications; such as Aircraft gas turbines, steam turbines in power plants and its extensive use in the energy and nuclear power markets.

Nickel is a natural resource, which cannot be consumed. Like many other metals, nickel is fully recyclable. It can be recycled again and again without loss of quality,

About 69% of the nickel which is produced is used to manufacture stainless steels. Another 15% is used in other steel and non-ferrous alloys - often for highly specialized industrial, aerospace and military applications. About 8% is used in plating and another 3% in foundries and castings. About 3% of nickel is used in batteries for electronics, and in batteries for portable equipment and hybrid cars and roughly 2% goes into uses such as chemicals, catalysts and dyes.

• Some examples: Monel 400 / N04400 / 2.4360, Inconel Alloy 31 / N08031 / 1.4562, Alloy 625 / N06625 / 2.4856, Alloy 825 / N08825 / 2.4858, Hastelloy C22 / N06022 / 2.4602, C276 / N10276 / 2.4819

Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys

Aluminium (aluminium in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and ductile.

The strong affinity towards oxygen leads to aluminium's common association with oxygen in nature in the form of oxides; for this reason, aluminium is found on Earth primarily in rocks in the crust, where it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon, rather than in the mantle, and virtually never as the free metal.

Aluminium and aluminium alloys have many outstanding attri- butes that lead to a wide range of applications, including good corrosion and oxidation resistance, high electrical and thermal conductivities, low density, high reflectivity, high ductility and reasonably high strength, and relatively low cost.

• Some examples: 1060/5083

Copper and Copper Alloys

Copper, brass, and bronze are metals widely known as “red metals”, due to their reddish tone. While copper is a pure metal, brass and bronze are copper alloys (brass is a combination of copper and zinc; bronze is a combination of copper and tin). All three metals demonstrate phenomenal properties that make them ideal for production in metal sheets.

It is among the few metals found in nature that can directly be used for processing. It can either be used on its own or combined with other metals and alloys to form its own subgroup of alloys.

Key benefits of Copper and Copper Alloys:

  • Resistance to many forms of damage – impact, wear, and corrosion. It also maintains high level of resilience when flexed and drawn.
  • Outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity.
  • Bacterial antimicrobial resistance without degrading. It even kills bacteria that are exposed to its surface. This quality makes it ideal for use in food-safe equipment.

• Some examples: Cu / Ni, Cu / Al

Titanium and it's Alloys

One of the most important metals in modern day manufacturing is that of titanium. It is used extensively across the globe, in every imaginable industry. Due to its endurance and lightweight, titanium and its alloys can be found in many aerospace applications, as well as high performance race cars, medical equipment and others. Titanium is also extremely resistant to corrosion and has the highest strength to density ratio of any other metal.

When merging titanium with other metals it produces strong and lightweight alloys that can be used in military equipment, jet engines and missiles.

The various industries that utilize Titanium and its Alloys include:

  • Gas and oil exploration for deep sea drilling
  • Aerospace engines
  • Agri-food production
  • Marine propeller shafts and rigging for desalination plants
  • Performance Bicycle frames and parts
  • Medical equipment
  • Telecommunications in such things as mobile phones and equipment

• SB265 Grade 1/2/5/7/9/11/12



Zirconium is a silver-gray transition metal that easily forms stable compounds. Zirconium is a type of element that is capable of being extended or shaped by hammering or by pressure from rollers. The melting point of zirconium is 1855 °C and is used in high-temperature applications. Its excellent resistance to corrosion allows it to be used as an alloying agent in materials that are exposed to robust environments.

Applications and industries where Zirconium is used:

  • High temperature resistant equipment or parts such as blades, combustors and vanes in jet engines and stationary gas turbines.
  • Zirconium is used in Space and aeronautic industries where resistance to extreme heat is crucial.

• SB551 R60700 / R60702

Ask our experts

Do you want to know what material will work best for you?

Contact us now

© 2021 Antonius. All rights reserved. Website door Merkelijkheid